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It is the second-most abundant halogen after fluorine and twenty-first most abundant chemical element in Earth's crust.
These crustal deposits are nevertheless dwarfed by the huge reserves of chloride in seawater. Elemental chlorine is commercially produced from brine by electrolysis.
The high oxidising potential of elemental chlorine led to the development of commercial bleaches and disinfectants , and a reagent for many processes in the chemical industry.
Chlorine is used in the manufacture of a wide range of consumer products, about two-thirds of them organic chemicals such as polyvinyl chloride , and many intermediates for the production of plastics and other end products which do not contain the element.
As a common disinfectant, elemental chlorine and chlorine-generating compounds are used more directly in swimming pools to keep them clean and sanitary.
Elemental chlorine at high concentrations is extremely dangerous and poisonous for all living organisms, and was used in World War I as the first gaseous chemical warfare agent.
In the form of chloride ions , chlorine is necessary to all known species of life. Other types of chlorine compounds are rare in living organisms, and artificially produced chlorinated organics range from inert to toxic.
In the upper atmosphere , chlorine-containing organic molecules such as chlorofluorocarbons have been implicated in ozone depletion.
Small quantities of elemental chlorine are generated by oxidation of chloride to hypochlorite in neutrophils as part of the immune response against bacteria.
The most common compound of chlorine, sodium chloride, has been known since ancient times; archaeologists have found evidence that rock salt was used as early as BC and brine as early as BC.
Elemental chlorine was probably first isolated around with the discovery of aqua regia and its ability to dissolve gold, since chlorine gas is one of the products of this reaction: Around , chlorine was recognized as a gas by the Flemish chemist and physician Jan Baptist van Helmont.
The element was first studied in detail in by Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele , and he is credited with the discovery.
Scheele observed several of the properties of chlorine: Common chemical theory at that time held that an acid is a compound that contains oxygen remnants of this survive in the German and Dutch names of oxygen: In , Sir Humphry Davy tried the same experiment again, and concluded that the substance was an element, and not a compound.
Chlorine gas was first used by French chemist Claude Berthollet to bleach textiles in The resulting liquid, known as " Eau de Javel " " Javel water " , was a weak solution of sodium hypochlorite.
This process was not very efficient, and alternative production methods were sought. Scottish chemist and industrialist Charles Tennant first produced a solution of calcium hypochlorite "chlorinated lime" , then solid calcium hypochlorite bleaching powder.
Near the end of the nineteenth century, E. Smith patented a method of sodium hypochlorite production involving electrolysis of brine to produce sodium hydroxide and chlorine gas, which then mixed to form sodium hypochlorite.
Elemental chlorine solutions dissolved in chemically basic water sodium and calcium hypochlorite were first used as anti- putrefaction agents and disinfectants in the s, in France, long before the establishment of the germ theory of disease.
This practice was pioneered by Antoine-Germain Labarraque , who adapted Berthollet's "Javel water" bleach and other chlorine preparations for a more complete history, see below.
Chlorine gas was first used as a weapon on April 22, , at Ypres by the German Army. Chlorine is the second halogen , being a nonmetal in group 17 of the periodic table.
Its properties are thus similar to fluorine , bromine , and iodine , and are largely intermediate between those of the first two.
Chlorine has the electron configuration [Ne]3s 2 3p 5 , with the seven electrons in the third and outermost shell acting as its valence electrons.
Like all halogens, it is thus one electron short of a full octet, and is hence a strong oxidising agent, reacting with many elements in order to complete its outer shell.
It is also a weaker oxidising agent than fluorine, but a stronger one than bromine. Conversely, the chloride ion is a weaker reducing agent than bromide, but a stronger one than fluoride.
Fluorine is anomalous due to its small size. All four stable halogens experience intermolecular van der Waals forces of attraction, and their strength increases together with the number of electrons among all homonuclear diatomic halogen molecules.
Thus, the melting and boiling points of chlorine are intermediate between those of fluorine and bromine: As a result of the increasing molecular weight of the halogens down the group, the density and heats of fusion and vaporisation of chlorine are again intermediate between those of bromine and fluorine, although all their heats of vaporisation are fairly low leading to high volatility thanks to their diatomic molecular structure.
This trend occurs because the wavelengths of visible light absorbed by the halogens increase down the group.
Like solid bromine and iodine, solid chlorine crystallises in the orthorhombic crystal system , in a layered lattice of Cl 2 molecules.
This structure means that chlorine is a very poor conductor of electricity, and indeed its conductivity is so low as to be practically unmeasurable.
Chlorine has two stable isotopes, 35 Cl and 37 Cl. Both are synthesised in stars in the oxygen-burning and silicon-burning processes.
The other chlorine isotopes are all radioactive, with half-lives too short to occur in nature primordially. The most stable chlorine radioisotope is 36 Cl.
The primary decay mode of isotopes lighter than 35 Cl is electron capture to isotopes of sulfur ; that of isotopes heavier than 37 Cl is beta decay to isotopes of argon ; and 36 Cl may decay by either mode to stable 36 S or 36 Ar.
In the top meter of the lithosphere, 36 Cl is generated primarily by thermal neutron activation of 35 Cl and spallation of 39 K and 40 Ca.
In the subsurface environment, muon capture by 40 Ca becomes more important as a way to generate 36 Cl. Chlorine is intermediate in reactivity between fluorine and bromine, and is one of the most reactive elements.
Chlorine is a weaker oxidising agent than fluorine but a stronger one than bromine or iodine. However, this trend is not shown in the bond energies because fluorine is singular due to its small size, low polarisability, and lack of low-lying d-orbitals available for bonding which chlorine has.
As another difference, chlorine has a significant chemistry in positive oxidation states while fluorine does not. Chlorination often leads to higher oxidation states than bromination or iodination but lower oxidation states to fluorination.
However, the kinetics of this reaction are unfavorable, and there is also a bubble overpotential effect to consider, so that electrolysis of aqueous chloride solutions evolves chlorine gas and not oxygen gas, a fact that is very useful for the industrial production of chlorine.
The simplest chlorine compound is hydrogen chloride , HCl, a major chemical in industry as well as in the laboratory, both as a gas and dissolved in water as hydrochloric acid.
It is often produced by burning hydrogen gas in chlorine gas, or as a byproduct of chlorinating hydrocarbons. Another approach is to treat sodium chloride with concentrated sulfuric acid to produce hydrochloric acid, also known as the "salt-cake" process: In the laboratory, hydrogen chloride gas may be made by drying the acid with concentrated sulfuric acid.
Deuterium chloride , DCl, may be produced by reacting benzoyl chloride with heavy water D 2 O. At room temperature, hydrogen chloride is a colourless gas, like all the hydrogen halides apart from hydrogen fluoride , since hydrogen cannot form strong hydrogen bonds to the larger electronegative chlorine atom; however, weak hydrogen bonding is present in solid crystalline hydrogen chloride at low temperatures, similar to the hydrogen fluoride structure, before disorder begins to prevail as the temperature is raised.
Hydrochloric acid forms an azeotrope with boiling point Anhydrous hydrogen chloride is a poor solvent, only able to dissolve small molecular compounds such as nitrosyl chloride and phenol , or salts with very low lattice energies such as tetraalkylammonium halides.
Solvolysis , ligand replacement reactions, and oxidations are well-characterised in hydrogen chloride solution: Nearly all elements in the periodic table form binary chlorides.
The exceptions are decidedly in the minority and stem in each case from one of three causes: Chlorination of metals with Cl 2 usually leads to a higher oxidation state than bromination with Br 2 when multiple oxidation states are available, such as in MoCl 5 and MoBr 3.
Chlorides can be made by reaction of an element or its oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate with hydrochloric acid, and then dehydrated by mildly high temperatures combined with either low pressure or anhydrous hydrogen chloride gas.
These methods work best when the chloride product is stable to hydrolysis; otherwise, the possibilities include high-temperature oxidative chlorination of the element with chlorine or hydrogen chloride, high-temperature chlorination of a metal oxide or other halide by chlorine, a volatile metal chloride, carbon tetrachloride , or an organic chloride.
For instance, zirconium dioxide reacts with chlorine at standard conditions to produce zirconium tetrachloride , and uranium trioxide reacts with hexachloropropene when heated under reflux to give uranium tetrachloride.
The second example also involves a reduction in oxidation state , which can also be achieved by reducing a higher chloride using hydrogen or a metal as a reducing agent.
This may also be achieved by thermal decomposition or disproportionation as follows: Silver chloride is very insoluble in water and is thus often used as a qualitative test for chlorine.
This is very unstable and has only been characterised by its electronic band spectrum when produced in a low-pressure discharge tube.
This reaction is conducted in the oxidising solvent arsenic pentafluoride. The three fluorides of chlorine form a subset of the interhalogen compounds, all of which are diamagnetic.
Chlorine monofluoride ClF is extremely thermally stable, and is sold commercially in gram steel lecture bottles. Its properties are mostly intermediate between those of chlorine and fluorine.
It will react with many metals and nonmetals from room temperature and above, fluorinating them and liberating chlorine.
It will also act as a chlorofluorinating agent, adding chlorine and fluorine across a multiple bond or by oxidation: It will also react exothermically and violently with compounds containing —OH and —NH groups, such as water: It is one of the most reactive known chemical compounds, reacting with many substances which in ordinary circumstances would be considered chemically inert, such as asbestos , concrete, and sand.
It explodes on contact with water and most organic substances. The list of elements it sets on fire is diverse, containing hydrogen , potassium , phosphorus , arsenic , antimony , sulfur , selenium , tellurium , bromine , iodine , and powdered molybdenum , tungsten , rhodium , iridium , and iron.
An impermeable fluoride layer is formed by sodium , magnesium , aluminium , zinc , tin , and silver , which may be removed by heating. When heated, even such noble metals as palladium , platinum , and gold are attacked and even the noble gases xenon and radon do not escape fluorination.
Nickel containers are usually used due to that metal's great resistance to attack by chlorine trifluoride, stemming from the formation of an unreactive nickel fluoride layer.
Its reaction with hydrazine to form hydrogen fluoride, nitrogen, and chlorine gases was used in experimental rocket motors, but has problems largely stemming from its extreme hypergolicity resulting in ignition without any measurable delay.
For these reasons, it was used in bomb attacks during the Second World War by the Nazis. Today, it is mostly used in nuclear fuel processing, to oxidise uranium to uranium hexafluoride for its enriching and to separate it from plutonium.
It is a very strong fluorinating agent, although it is still not as effective as chlorine trifluoride. Only a few specific stoichiometric reactions have been characterised.
The product, chloryl fluoride , is one of the five known chlorine oxide fluorides. All five behave similarly to the chlorine fluorides, both structurally and chemically, and may act as Lewis acids or bases by gaining or losing fluoride ions respectively or as very strong oxidising and fluorinating agents.
The chlorine oxides are well-studied in spite of their instability all of them are endothermic compounds.
They are important because they are produced when chlorofluorocarbons undergo photolysis in the upper atmosphere and cause the destruction of the ozone layer.
None of them can be made from directly reacting the elements. Dichlorine monoxide Cl 2 O is a brownish-yellow gas red-brown when solid or liquid which may be obtained by reacting chlorine gas with yellow mercury II oxide.
It is very soluble in water, in which it is in equilibrium with hypochlorous acid HOCl , which it is the anhydride of.
It is thus an effective bleach and is mostly used to make hypochlorites. It explodes on heating or sparking or in the presence of ammonia gas.
Chlorine dioxide ClO 2 was the first chlorine oxide to be discovered in by Humphry Davy. It is a yellow paramagnetic gas deep-red as a solid or liquid , as expected from its having an odd number of electrons: It is usually prepared by reducing a chlorate as follows: Its production is thus intimately linked to the redox reactions of the chlorine oxoacids.
It is a strong oxidising agent, reacting with sulfur , phosphorus , phosphorus halides, and potassium borohydride. It dissolves exothermically in water to form dark-green solutions that very slowly decompose in the dark.
However, in the presence of light, these solutions rapidly photodecompose to form a mixture of chloric and hydrochloric acids. The ClO radical leads to the depletion of atmospheric ozone and is thus environmentally important as follows: Chlorine perchlorate ClOClO 3 is a pale yellow liquid that is less stable than ClO 2 and decomposes at room temperature to form chlorine, oxygen, and dichlorine hexoxide Cl 2 O 6.
It hydrolyses in water to give a mixture of chloric and perchloric acids: Das Mittwochslotto wartete mit einem Jackpot von rund 4 Millionen Euro auf - so viel konnte man mit den 6 aus 49 Gewinnzahlen plus passender Superzahl bei der aktuellen Mittwochsziehung gewinnen.
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Chloride of lime was used for destroying odors and "putrid matter". One source claims chloride of lime was used by Dr.
John Snow to disinfect water from the cholera-contaminated well that was feeding the Broad Street pump in London,  though three other reputable sources that describe that famous cholera epidemic do not mention the incident.
Perhaps the most famous application of Labarraque's chlorine and chemical base solutions was in , when Ignaz Semmelweis used chlorine-water chlorine dissolved in pure water, which was cheaper than chlorinated lime solutions to disinfect the hands of Austrian doctors, which Semmelweis noticed still carried the stench of decomposition from the dissection rooms to the patient examination rooms.
Long before the germ theory of disease, Semmelweis theorized that "cadaveric particles" were transmitting decay from fresh medical cadavers to living patients, and he used the well-known "Labarraque's solutions" as the only known method to remove the smell of decay and tissue decomposition which he found that soap did not.
The solutions proved to be far more effective antiseptics than soap Semmelweis was also aware of their greater efficacy, but not the reason , and this resulted in Semmelweis's celebrated success in stopping the transmission of childbed fever "puerperal fever" in the maternity wards of Vienna General Hospital in Austria in Much later, during World War I in , a standardized and diluted modification of Labarraque's solution containing hypochlorite 0.
Called Dakin's solution , the method of wound irrigation with chlorinated solutions allowed antiseptic treatment of a wide variety of open wounds, long before the modern antibiotic era.
A modified version of this solution continues to be employed in wound irrigation in modern times, where it remains effective against bacteria that are resistant to multiple antibiotics see Century Pharmaceuticals.
By , the US Department of Treasury called for all drinking water to be disinfected with chlorine. Chlorine is presently an important chemical for water purification such as in water treatment plants , in disinfectants , and in bleach.
As a disinfectant in water, chlorine is more than three times as effective against Escherichia coli as bromine , and more than six times as effective as iodine.
Chlorine is usually used in the form of hypochlorous acid to kill bacteria and other microbes in drinking water supplies and public swimming pools.
In most private swimming pools, chlorine itself is not used, but rather sodium hypochlorite , formed from chlorine and sodium hydroxide , or solid tablets of chlorinated isocyanurates.
The drawback of using chlorine in swimming pools is that the chlorine reacts with the proteins in human hair and skin. The distinctive 'chlorine aroma' associated with swimming pools is not the result of chlorine itself, but of chloramine , a chemical compound produced by the reaction of free dissolved chlorine with amines in organic substances.
Even small water supplies are now routinely chlorinated. It is often impractical to store and use poisonous chlorine gas for water treatment, so alternative methods of adding chlorine are used.
These include hypochlorite solutions, which gradually release chlorine into the water, and compounds like sodium dichloro-s-triazinetrione dihydrate or anhydrous , sometimes referred to as "dichlor", and trichloro-s-triazinetrione , sometimes referred to as "trichlor".
These compounds are stable while solid and may be used in powdered, granular, or tablet form. When added in small amounts to pool water or industrial water systems, the chlorine atoms hydrolyze from the rest of the molecule forming hypochlorous acid HOCl , which acts as a general biocide, killing germs, micro-organisms, algae, and so on.
It also tasted metallic and stung the back of the throat and chest. Chlorine reacts with water in the mucosa of the lungs to form hydrochloric acid , destructive to living tissue and potentially lethal.
Human respiratory systems can be protected from chlorine gas by gas masks with activated charcoal or other filters, which makes chlorine gas much less lethal than other chemical weapons.
It was pioneered by a German scientist later to be a Nobel laureate, Fritz Haber of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute in Berlin, in collaboration with the German chemical conglomerate IG Farben , which developed methods for discharging chlorine gas against an entrenched enemy.
Chlorine gas was also used during the Iraq War in Anbar Province in , with insurgents packing truck bombs with mortar shells and chlorine tanks.
The attacks killed two people from the explosives and sickened more than Most of the deaths were caused by the force of the explosions rather than the effects of chlorine since the toxic gas is readily dispersed and diluted in the atmosphere by the blast.
In some bombings, over a hundred civilians were hospitalized due to breathing difficulties. The Iraqi authorities tightened security for elemental chlorine, which is essential for providing safe drinking water to the population.
The Syrian government allegedly uses chlorine as a chemical weapon ,  often dropping it in barrel bombs ,  but sometimes also in rockets.
The chloride anion is an essential nutrient for metabolism. Chlorine is needed for the production of hydrochloric acid in the stomach and in cellular pump functions.
Overly low or high concentrations of chloride in the blood are examples of electrolyte disturbances. Hypochloremia having too little chloride rarely occurs in the absence of other abnormalities.
Its sometimes associated with hypoventilation. When symptoms do occur, they tend to resemble those of hypernatremia having too much sodium.
Reduction in blood chloride leads to cerebral dehydration; symptoms are most often caused by rapid rehydration which results in cerebral edema.
Hyperchloremia can affect oxygen transport. Chlorine is a toxic gas that attacks the respiratory system, eyes, and skin.
Chlorine gas is a strong oxidizer, which may react with flammable materials. Chlorine is detectable with measuring devices in concentrations as low as 0.
When used at specified levels for water disinfection, the reaction of chlorine with water is not a major concern for human health.
Other materials present in the water may generate disinfection by-products that are associated with negative effects on human health. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health has designated a recommended exposure limit of 0.
In the home, accidents occur when hypochlorite bleach solutions come into contact with certain acidic drain-cleaners to produce chlorine gas. Chlorine is widely used for purifying water, especially potable water supplies and water used in swimming pools.
Several catastrophic collapses of swimming pool ceilings have occurred from chlorine-induced stress corrosion cracking of stainless steel suspension rods.
Both materials were used in hot and cold water domestic plumbing, and stress corrosion cracking caused widespread failures in the US in the s and s.
The adjacent picture shows a fractured acetal joint in a water supply system. The cracks started at injection molding defects in the joint and slowly grew until the part failed.
The fracture surface shows iron and calcium salts that were deposited in the leaking joint from the water supply before failure. The element iron can combine with chlorine at high temperatures in a strong exothermic reaction, creating a chlorine-iron fire.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the chemical element. For other uses, see Chlorine disambiguation. For other uses, see CL disambiguation and CL2 disambiguation.
Chlorine production and Chloralkali process. Water chlorination and Bleach. Chemical weapons in World War I.
Chlorine bombings in Iraq. Use of chemical weapons in the Syrian Civil War. Chemical Rubber Company Publishing.
Archived from the original on April 30, In section 6 on pp. After this mixture had been standing in the cold for one hour, the acid had assumed a dark brown colour.
One part of this solution was poured into a glass, which was placed over the fire. For an English translation of the relevant passages of this article, see: The Early History of Chlorine: Papers by Carl Wilhelm Scheele , C.
Berthollet , Guyton de Morveau , J. Thenard Edinburgh, Scotland: Alembic Club, , pp. Archived from the original on The development of modern chemistry.
Journal of Chemical Education. The phenomena that it presents can be explained well enough on this hypothesis; we shall not seek to defend it, however, as it appears to us that they are still better explained by regarding oxygenated muriatic acid as a compound body.
On some of the combinations of oxymuriatic gas and oxygene, and on the chemical relations of these principles, to inflammable bodies".
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Davy named chlorine on p. Journal für Chemie und Physik in German.
Archived from the original on June 15, Archived from the original on 13 December Retrieved 13 December History of Industrial Gases.
Labarraque — " [The great pharmacists: Revue d'histoire de la pharmacie in French. Archived from the original PDF on 21 February Archived from the original on 14 August The Riddle of the Rhine: Chemical Strategy in Peace and War.
Archived from the original PDF on Earth and Planetary Science Letters. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity. Environmental Science and Technology.
Progress in the Chemistry of Organic Natural Products. Science and technology in medicine. On the disinfecting properties of Labarraque's preparations of chlorine.
Translated by James Scott. On the disinfecting properties of Labarraque's preparations of chlorine Archived at the Wayback Machine.
Highley, Accessed Nov 1, The Foul and the Fragrant: Cholera, Chloroform, and the Science of Medicine. John Snow and the Mystery of Cholera.
More Than His Solution". The Elements, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 81st ed. Archived from the original on March 30, Archived from the original on October 24, Kurdistan Region Security Council.
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